Steps involved in small project writing
Steps involved in small project writing are:
Formulating project topic
The researcher needs to see whether the project topic is optional or not, whether it is too narrow or too broad, what is the scope of the topic chosen, is it relevant to the current question.
In this step, the researcher research the decided topic. The information might change the focus of the researcher. He might find a more exciting aspect of the same topic. Then he gathers the relevant information regarding the topic.
Construction of an outline
After gathering information, the researcher can form an outline that will help him organize his thoughts.
Write the first draft
The source should be appropriately cited. The material should not be copied but should be one own word. For the proper understanding of the reader, it should be appropriately organized.
Write the final draft and add conclusion and bibliography
The last step of the project should be adequately formulated according to the rules and guidelines.
Extensive literature survey
It is a survey or documentation of a published and unpublished work in the area of specific interest to the researcher.
Needs of extensive literature survey
- A good literature survey increases the researcher confidence, competence, ability and background knowledge.
- A researcher must find out what others have said and what literature is available on the topic selected for the research.
- An essential purpose of consulting literature is to gain sufficient theoretical and factual knowledge, not to be a duplication of efforts.
- Prior studies in the area of research chosen by procedure and design so that a researcher can frame a better hypothesis and gain new knowledge.
- Another significant advantage is that a researcher can avoid mistakes by learning from the experience of others.
Collection and interpretation of data
The task of data collection begins after the research process and research design. The researcher should keep in mind two types of data:
These are those which are collected for the first time and are original. It is collected during the experiment in experimental research. We can obtain primary data either with the help of observation or with the help of direct communication. Two types of primary data are:
Information obtains from outside, either from a published source or someone else who has already worked on the subject.
It can be broadly divided into two types:
- Personal document- life history, letters, diary etc.
- Published document- records, journal, films etc.
(Data: it may be referred to as facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis.)
These can be sampling methods, literature, software, interview etc. Anything that can be used while going through a research journey. The material gathered using research tools helps substantiate the statement made in hypothesis lawyers, and researches mainly use two essential tools, namely libraries and computers. Some of the tools are:
- Library- Books, periodicals, documentaries, material, encyclopedia, reports, dictionaries in the library are essential in knowing the background of the problem to be investigated.
- Computers- The use of computers has brought information revolution. This development is very significant from a research perspective as inter nation’s documents, statutes, can be studied efficiently and are helpful in the comparative study. The library has its limitations, but computers with the internet have an indefinite amount of information. The sorting of relevant information can be problematic as there is too much information; therefore, credibility cannot be tested.
- Interview- Interview with prominent personalities in which they talk about themselves, their personal experience or share their views on a particular issue is crucial as a research tool. This is a powerful technique to yield sociological data and is highly adaptable to various research problems. It can be personal or telephonic interviews.
- Questioner or schedules-
- The questioner is a printed list of questions given to persons to get their feedback on a particular research problem. The question should be chosen very intelligently so that feedback proves to be very helpful in research.
- Schedule means question takes in a face to face situation.
- Sampling method- In this method, the small group is selected as representative of the whole population. Sampling can be systematic or stratified. Ex: any research related to child employment in the hazardous industry.
According to George. A. Lund burg “ A hypothesis is a tentative generation the validity of which remain to be tested. It may be a guess imagination idea which because the basis for action or investigation.
When a hypothesis is stated negative, it is called the null hypothesis.
Ex: fast food affects the health of children.
The null hypothesis is testable. It is a similar hypothesis ‘it is a possible answer to a research question. It is a possible answer to a research question. It is a presumption based on which a study has to be conducted.
To a legal principle that “a man is innocent until he is proved guilty”.
Formulation of hypothesis
When research is conducted, hypothesis formulation is one of the most primary steps. Hypothesis formulation helps in formulating the research problem.
P. V. Young says that hypothesis is the provisional central idea that becomes the basis for fruitful investigation.
Three things are essential in the hypothesis:
Stages in formulating the hypothesis
- The researcher has to observe phenomena.
- He should identify the cause and consequences of phenomena.
- He should logically reduce the facts relating to the phenomena.
- He should keep it ready for verification.
Importance of hypothesis
The research process begins and ends with the hypothesis. It is the core of either procedure and, therefore, is of the utmost importance. The hypothesis is nothing but the heat of the research. In research without a hypothesis, research cannot be adequately served.
In hypothesis, hypo means less than or under, thesis means idea or general opinion to be defended by a person; thus, a hypothesis means an idea or general opinion with less value means the primary idea about anything is called a hypothesis.
The importance of the hypothesis is stated as under:
- It provides direction to the research as it tells us what data is to be collected and what not to be collected.
- It provides a focus, the construction of the hypothesis enhance the objective in a study.
- Hypothesis serves the function of linking together related facts and information and comprehensively organizes them.
Characteristics of hypothesis
- It should be capable of verification.
- It should be simple, specific and conceptually straightforward.
- It should be relating to an existing body of knowledge.
- It should be operationalized.
Interpretations of data
- After the data is collected and processed, the researcher reaches the stage of analysis and interpretation.
- Interpretation is the process of making sense of numerical data that has been collected, analyzed and presented.
- The interpretation is assigning meaning to the collected information and determining the conclusion, significance and implications of the findings.
- The interpretation can both descriptive as well as diagrammatic. It also provides scope for further research as a new hypothesis can be formulated based on interpretation.
- It is the responsibility of a researcher to interpret data very carefully, while the interpretation researcher must compare and make a valuable suggestion for further research.
- The accuracy and perfection of interpretation depend on the sources through which data is collected. Techniques followed and how it is done.
Data generalization is a process of creating successive layers of summary data in an evaluation database. It is a process of zooming out to get a broader view of the problem, trend or solution. It is also known as rolling up data.
- For generalization, it must be based on observation or empirical experience.
- It should not be based on the researcher views.
- A generalization should not be too narrow or too broad.
- When the hypothesis is tested, it is late transformed into generalization.
- After generalization, the researcher completes the fieldwork and other steps of the study.